Cytarabine, mycophenolic acid, and cyclosporine inhibit HIV-1 replication in Rev-CEM-Luc and PBMC. (A) Rev-CEM-Luc indicator cells were treated with the indicated drugs for 2 hours prior to infection with HIVNL4-3 for two hours. Cells were washed and cultured for 48 hours, and analyzed for HIV-dependent luciferase activity. (B to D) PMBCs were purified from healthy donors. For HIV infection, cells were pre-activated with PHA plus IL-2 for 24 hours. One million cells were treated with each of the reagents for 2 hours, and then infected with HIV-1 (250 ng p24) for 2 hours in the presence of the reagents. Infected cells were washed and resuspended in 1 ml of fresh medium with PHA plus IL-2, and the reagents added. Additional PHA plus IL-2 were added every 48 hours. Supernatant was taken for measuring viral p24 release by ELISA. (B) Cytarabine dosage-dependent inhibition of HIV-1 infection of PBMC. (C) MMF dosage-dependent inhibition of HIV infection of PBMC. (D) Cyclosporine dosage-dependent inhibition of HIV infection of PBMC. (E) To measure drug cytotoxicity, PMBC were also stained with propidium iodide (P.I.) and measured with flow cytometry. Shown are results at day 10 post drug treatment.